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Lambda Magic ✨

C++ lambdas are magical. They’re totally splendiferous.

Magic
But, at the end of the day, they are nothing but syntactic-sugar for creating function objects (you could even write them yourself (and pre-C++11 we did (… or more likely didn’t))).

Well, almost – because captureless lambdas are magical.

Like faeries, captureless lambdas are pure and magical creatures.
Unlike faeries, captureless lambdas can be converted to function pointers.

Automatic function pointer conversion is very useful when interacting with C APIs that require function pointer arguments. One notorious example is qsort() (you should always prefer std::sort where possible). Similarly, many C APIs require a function pointer callback.

A further magic trick that captureless lambdas can perform is to convert to a function pointer of any desired function calling convention. This may be of more interest to 32-bit Windows developers, though calling conventions are more intimiately related to the processor architecture than the OS.

Calling conventions behave as part of the function signature. Given a function or function pointer of one calling convention static_cast<>ing it to another will not compile and using reinterpret_cast<> would most likely result in a crash or Undefined Behaviour.

This code does not compile (on 32-bit x86):

int f(int) {return 0;}          // __cdecl is the default
int (           *fn1)(int) = f; // OK
int (__cdecl    *fn2)(int) = f; // OK
int (__stdcall  *fn3)(int) = f; // Nope!
int (__fastcall *fn4)(int) = f; // Nope!

However, with lambdas Voilà!

auto f = [](int)->int{return 0;};
int (           *fn1)(int) = f;
int (__cdecl    *fn2)(int) = f;
int (__stdcall  *fn3)(int) = f;
int (__fastcall *fn4)(int) = f;

Visual Studio happily converts the lambda to the various function pointers even on x86 builds. This is type safe and should work as expected.

In the next post, I will investigate how “pure” captureless lambdas really are. I’ll also dive deeper into using lambdas as callbacks.
Stay tuned.

🎩

Acknowledgments: banner


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